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Heat Transfer Calculators

Library

coolingZONE Library – where engineers and researchers go to see the latest and archived developments in thermal management.


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Library  »  Application Notes  »  Ake Malhammar

A Bessel Function Solution for the Temperature Distribution on Convection Cooled Plates with Discrete Heat Sources

 - there are many ways to calculate the temperature distribution on convection cooled plates. this article presents yet another one. it is fundamentally based on a modified bessel function solution to the temperature field that surrounds a circular heat source on an infinite surface. Read more »

A Fourier Series Solution for the Temperature Distribution on Convection Cooled Plates with Discrete Heat Sources

 - this article is about a fourier series solution to the problem of calculating the temperature distribution on a convection cooled plate with discrete heat sources. it is by no means the only way to tackle with this problem. at times it is nevertheless the most convenient one. Read more »

Not a Success Story

 - an article by ake malhammar. speaking in very general terms there are thousands of ways to do things wrong but only a few ways to do them right. from that perspective it is surprising that not more mistakes are made. it is, nevertheless, inevitable that things go wrong now and then and on those occasions it is important to learn as much as possible about the reasons. Read more »

Optimization of Heat Sinks in Non-Confined Flow

 - an article by ake malhammar. the majority of heat sinks used for cooling of electronics are probably of this type. much of the physics is the same as for the non-bypass case but there is the additional difficulty that the bypass flow phenomenon must be modeled. the major steps in the optimizing process are nevertheless the same: create an overview, refine the solution and verify the result. Read more »

Optimisation of Heat Sinks in Confined Flow

 - an article by ake malhammar. the major problem when optimizing a heat sink is that there are quite a few parameters that can be changed. the process must therefore by necessity span over a large collection of parameter sets from which the best alternatives can be picked out. Read more »

Heat Sinks and Reynolds Analogy

 - an article by dr. ake malhammar. this article is about an analytical approach to heat sink design that uses reynolds analogy. it ends with a definition of a characteristic parameter, here called the heat sink analogy number that can be used to compare heat sinks of different size and type. Read more »

Convection and Friction

 - an article by dr. ake malhammar on heat sink design. it is nevertheless possible to create a map that can provide some bearing. the profound correlation between convection and friction is the basis for it. the entire subject is too large to be covered in a single piece. this article will therefore only deal with single bodies. Read more »

The Air Efficiency Concept

 - an article by dr. ake malhammar. this article is about the air efficiency. it is a property that quantifies how well the airflow is used for cooling. Read more »

The Cooling Efficiency Concept- Part 2

 - an article by dr. ake malhammar on the thermal design of printed circuit boards.the cooling efficiency concept is not the solution to the management of all these issues. it can however radically facilitate many of them. Read more »

The Cooling Efficiency Concept- Part 1

 - an article by dr. ake malhammar on the thermal design of printed circuit boards. the cooling efficiency concept has been used for more than 10 years and its effectiveness has been proven in hundreds projects. it is however still only practiced by a small minority of thermal designers but in this group it is regarded as key concept. Read more »

Front-end Thermal Design

 - an article by dr. ake malhammar on the importance of front end of thermal design in electronic systems as a cost-saving and time-saving tool and to improve final product reliability. Read more »

Component or PCB Oriented Thermal Design

 - an article by dr. ake malhammar on the thermal design of printed circuit boards. the physics of thermal design is sometimes difficult to understand, particularly for air-cooled pcbs. the complexity is one reason but a good understanding also requires combination of knowledge about both electronic hardware and heat transfer theory. Read more »

What is Air Velocity

 - an article by dr. ake malhammar. very useful for looking at the importance of clarity about the definition of velocity. this article will reveal that there are several definition problems and that overlooking these can cause significant errors. Read more »

Uncertainties in Thermal Design

 - an article by dr. ake malhammar. discussions about uncertainties in thermal design are predominantly focused on the temperature calculation methods. this article takes a broader view and reveals that there are a handful of other problems which are at least as important. Read more »

Topics and Articles in Electronics Cooling